Genealogy: 1880 U.S. Federal census tutorial

1880 mastheadBy Barry J. Ewell

This is a comprehensive tutorial for researching the 1880 U.S. federal census. You will be introduced to what I have used and shared with thousands to successfully find generations of family. Begin by learning how to use the census as a foundation to effective research, identify, map, and follow family through generations.

The tutorial will expand your knowledge and skills of how to conduct an exhaustive search to find genealogical and Family History records, repositories, resolve research problems and connect with resources researching similar lines.

The tutorial is divided into the following sections:

  • 1790-1940 U.S federal census resources
  • Introduction to 1880 U.S. federal census
  • How to effectively use the 1880 U.S. federal census
  • Search the 1880 census schedules
  • Expand your census research with military records
  • Defining the U.S. federal census
  • How to use the 1880 U.S. federal census
  • Questions asked on the 1880 census

1880 Resource
Click on any of the following years and you will be taken to that years’ census tutorial:

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  • U.S. census learning aids. Throughout the 1880 U.S. federal census tutorial find links to resources that I have specifically prepared to help you. In addition, I have written and assembled 190+ articles and resource aids to provide you a more in-depth understanding of the census research process.  I have tried to cover every possible question and angle that you are likely to face in your U.S. census research.  I would encourage you to use the resources often.  The category headings are as follows:
    • 190+ U.S. federal census articles and resource aids
      • U.S. federal census tutorials
      • Census and genealogy forms
      • Census research skills
      • Follow ancestors through the census
      • Researching names in the census
      • Defining ancestor age
      • Expanding census research to other resources
      • Expand your census research with military records
      • Census research best practices

1880 introduction
The following are a few of the details that are important to understand about the 1880 U.S. Federal census:

Number of persons included in the 1880 census: 50,189, 208 people were enumerated in the United States.

1880 census day:  June 1, 1880
1880 census duration: 1 month
1880 census geography:

  • States and territories enumerated: 38 states and twelve territories where included in the census.
  • New states: The newest state included the in 1880 census was Colorado
  • Territories included: Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, Alaska, Dakota and Indian
  • The available states include: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
  • The available states include: There are no missing states.
  • Missing localities.  The following localities are known to be missing data
    • Kentucky. Crittenden County
    • Michigan. Oscoda and Sanilac Counties
    • Missouri.  St. Louis
    • New York. Bronx and Madison and Tioga Counties, New York City (i.e. Five boroughs: Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Kings)
    • North Carolina. Guilford County
    • Ohio. Allen County
    • Oklahoma
    • Utah. Rich County
    • Virginia. Henrico and York Counties

A few important facts about the 1880 census include:

  • Numeration date. The numeration date is June 1, 1880 with one month to complete the census which resulted in less people being missed as in prior census periods.
  • President during census. Rutherford B. Hayes
  • This is the first census to use Indian as a race.  Indian families may appear in the general population census.  Make sure you also check the special Indian schedules.
  • Five schedules. Five schedules were  prepared for the 1880 census. They included:
    • Schedule 1: Population
    • Schedule 2: Mortality
    • Schedule 3: Agriculture
    • Schedule 4: Social Statistics
    • Schedule 5: Manufacturing
  • Privacy rule. The 1880 census were ordered to keep the answers to the census strictly private and could not share the information with anyone.  This was the beginning of 72 year privacy rule.  The general public would not be allowed to view the content of the census for 72 years.
  • Enumeration Districts. The Census Bureau set up “Enumeration Districts” which were charted out on maps.  There was an Enumeration supervisor for each district and was responsible for counting every person within the district and making a copy of every schedule.
  • Two copies of schedules. There were two copies of every census schedule.  The original copy was to be bound by county and located in the county courthouse.  The copy was to be sent to Bureau of Census in Washington D.C.
  • Five times more enumerators.  There were five times more enumerators hired for the 1880 census than in 1880.
  • Enumerators for supplemental schedules.  There were special enumerators, subject matter experts that were hired to complete the supplemental schedules.
  • Soundex. This is the first census to be indexed under the Soundex which only lists only families with children under the age of 10 years.  The Soundex uses a numbering system for letters which allows the name to be indexed by the way it sounds and not the way it is spelled. See the article:
  • 1 million. New York was the first city to surpass 1 million people with 1, 205,299.

1880 Use
Learn how to use the census to effectively find generations of family.  Use the information and clues provided to build out your family tree and expand your research. I have provided a comprehensive review of each question that includes research insights, tips and tricks, and must know information to aid your research.

  • Location and Dwelling number (Col. 1 -2). We are provided with the city/town/village/borough, county, and state where the family resides. This can help in defining geographic areas to search for family and records.
    • Counted in order. The dwelling was the number of houses that were counted.
    • Cities only. The census taker recorded the following for those living in the city: Name of street, house number, dwelling number in order of visitation, and family number in order of visitation.
    • Top of the form. At the top of every census form we are provided with the following information: State, county, city, page, Enumeration District and Enumeration date.
    • Societies. Search for a historical and/or genealogical society in the county to learn about community, records developed at the time you family lived in the area, connect with other genealogists who are researching the same surname, groups (i.e., church) to which your family belonged.
    • Use the location. Use the location to look for resources such as churches, cemeteries, courthouses.
    • Modern day repositories. Use the location to identify locations of modern day record repositories that are near the place you family lived (e.g., historical societies, genealogical societies, libraries, archives, court houses.)
  • Family Number (Col. 3).  This was the actual number of families counted.
    • Order of household visited. The census is recorded in the order of households visited. Take special note of the dwelling location versus the family number. For example, you could have dwelling 1 and dwelling 2, but for dwelling two you could have families 2, 3 and 4 living in the dwelling 2.  This could be an apartment building or several families living in the same home.  If you have people living in the same building, we need to be asking how they are related?
    • Circle of influence. You can begin to build the circle of influence for your ancestors by seeing who the neighbors were.
    • Search the neighbors. Often neighbors move with neighbors.  Are they the same family? Members of the same congregation? Friends?  If you can’t follow family or find the family in the census, see if you can follow neighbors. Are the given names similar among the neighbors and your family? Similar names run in families.  This might be a clue that they are more than just neighbors. It has been my experience that neighbors, even when they don’t share the same name are related.  Look for the neighbors being the wife’s parents, sister of the husband, siblings of the wife, aunts and uncles and so forth.  When I couldn’t find my ancestors in location, I have searched on the names of know neighbors to find my family. Make sure you include the names of neighbors in your family profile.
  • Composition of the family (Col. 4). Provides members of the household by name.
    • As of June 1880.  List the persons who lived in the home as of June 1870.
    • Individual names. Individual names for those in the household.
    • List order. As a general format family members are listed in the following order: husband, wife, children by age, parents, brothers, sisters, and so forth.
    • Death or birth after June 1, 1880. Individuals who died or children were not included who were born after June 1, 1880.
    • Relationship to head of household. This is the first census that asked for relationship to head of household.  See the category below titled “Relationships (Col. 9.)
    • Migration, Civil War and finding records.  The Civil War is still very fresh in the minds and lives of Americans during the 1880 census.  Families are on the move. Don’t be surprised if you are finding your family living in different locations with each census within the same county, state and region.  Each place they lived will be cause to search for records.  The following is the process I have used for using the family migration patterns between 1860-1900 to research and find records.  See the article, “Using 1860-1900 migration patterns to find records.”
    • Military records.  Make sure you search all the males in our family over the age over 30 for military records associated with possible service in the Civil War. By 1880, many war veterans and/or hires are starting to receive pensions. Search out the military records on not only your direct line but also male siblings, uncles, brother-in-laws, and cousins.  I have found important information about my direct line when reviewing the pension files of extended family. See the category “Search military records,” and click on the article, “Civil War 1861-1865,” to learn about how to research and find records available for the war.
    • Follow family through the census. Make it a priority to follow your family through censuses during their lifetime (e.g., federal, state, territorial, and local censuses) as well as census schedules if they exist (e.g., population, agriculture, manufacturing, social statistics, crime, mortality, veterans, slave.) The following articles will provide you a detailed example of following a family through the census.  See the articles:
    •  Check original census. Always seek to see the images of the original census to compare against the transcription.
    • Search same surname. Look closely at persons with the same surname. Could they be a relative? Does the individual show up as a child in earlier census?  Search other records such as deeds, wills to see if the person shows up. Could individuals be in-laws? Check marriages of the county for husbands of sisters, aunts, and mothers.
    • Search pages before and after the listing of your ancestors. I have found it important to search for the surname several pages before and after the page where you find your family. This can also help in suggesting relationships between neighbors. Look for added clues such as given first names, occupations, places of origin.  When I contact the genealogical/historical societies, I have often sought to find the genealogists who are researching these surnames to compare research.
    • Extract all with same surname. Make it a practice to extract all the persons with the same surname living in the same county.  Are they family? They could be family connection or related connection such as where they came from.  If your family lives near a state our county border, go ahead and extract the persons with the same surnames from neighboring counties.  I have usually found important clues and connections among those with the same surname that has enhanced my research.
  • Color (Col. 5). In this census there are more indication of color with the White (W), Indian (I) American Indian, Black (B), Chinese (C) included all east Asians, Mulatto (M) mixed race.  This information may be helpful in determining the person’s origins.
  • Age (Col. 6). This is not exact date of birth, but it  will provide a “ballpark” number that you can use in the help you track the person in the next census and search for birth event records of the time period.
    • Under the age of 1. Children under the age of 1 were represented months as fractions such as 1/12 meaning 1 month, 4/12 meaning for months.
    • Search other records. Few states during this period had vital records, but there are good changes that you may be able to look for church records. Start your search for these types of records at the genealogical/historical society.
    • Age gaps. Look at age gaps between children.  Is the age cap normal? For example, every two years.  Are the age gaps larger than expected? This could be a clue that there was another child or spouse that had passed away.  Look at age of husband and wife.  Are they about the same age? Is one spouse much older than the other?  If yes, this could be a clue that there is second marriage. Look at the ages of children and the place of birth.  This might provide clues of where the parents were married or from where the family migrated.
    • See the article: 1880 U.S. Census birth year reference chart
  • Relationship (Col. 9).  This is the first census that asked for relationship to head of household.
    • Family relationship titles.  In this census you will be seeing titles such as husband, wife, son, daughter, grandson, granddaughter, niece, nephew and so forth. When you see titles such as niece, nephew, uncle, aunt, you will still need to some investigation to understand which side of the family they belong. As you connect research from other census years, this will become clearer.
    • Non family titles. If the family isn’t related to the family, you will see titles like none, hired, servant, and so forth.
    • Wife many not be the mother of children.  Take special not of the wife as to whether she really is the mother of the children. Look at age gaps between children.  Is the age cap normal? For example, every two years.  Are the age gaps larger than expected? This could be a clue that there was another child or spouse that had passed away.  Look at age of husband and wife.  Are they about the same age? Is one spouse much older than the other?  If yes, this could be a clue that there is second marriage. Look at the ages of children and the place of birth.  This might provide clues of where the parents were married or from where the family migrated.
    • Discovering unknown surnames. The relationships column has been helpful in discovering previously unknown surnames for married daughters, mother-in-law, cousins, and other relatives living with the family.
    • Research the relationships. Make sure that you research all the relationships of your ancestors which include the siblings and their families (i.e., spouses, children), aunts and uncles, grandparents and even cousins.  As you build out the family tree, you will discover key pieces of information about your direct line when searching extended family.  For example, when I couldn’t find information about who were the parents of my direct line in the late 1800’s, I was able to learn the information from research I did on siblings.
  • Marital status (Col. 10-13).  In this series of columns we are told whether the person is single, married, married within the year, widowed (W) or divorced (D).
    • Married within year. If you find your ancestor was married within the census year (i.e., June 2, 1879 to June 1, 1880) search for civic as well as church marriage records.
    • Widowed.  If the person is widowed since the 1870 census, consider looking for wills and probate records, military pensions, death event records of a spouse.
    • Divorced. If the person is divorced search court records for divorced proceedings.
  • Occupation (Col. 14-15). This indicates the person’s occupation and related information can help one search for employment records.
    • Search for other records. Look carefully at the person’s occupation/trade and define what types of records that might exist. I had an ancestor who was a merchant which led me to look for a business license, business/professional directory, ads for his business in the newspaper and related documents all of which I found. Another genealogist, had ancestor who was a member of the clergy which led them to search and find church records.
    • Occupation clues. Use the occupation to provide clues as to other information that may be recorded in the supplemental schedules (i.e., Agriculture, Manufactures.)  For example, if the person was a farmer, make sure you look at Schedule 3, “Agricultural Census” for more information about the family. Or If the person was a saw or grist miller, cheese maker, or other “manufacturer,” check the manufacturing census schedules.
  • Health (Col. 16).  Number was used to denote type of illness 15-Sick or temporarily disabled, 16-Blind, 17-Deaf & dumb, 18-Idiotic, 19-Insane, 20-Maimed or crippled.
    • Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes Schedule. If you find an answer in this column, make sure you search the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes Schedule to see if you can find addition information about the individual and their family.
  • Education (Col. 17-18). This identifies if the person had gone to school within the year (i.e., June 2, 1879 to June 1, 1880.) This  will provide clues to look for school records that can associate children with parents.  Look for records such as school census.
    • Cannot read and write. Use this information to confirm that you have the right person when searching other records. For example, you are searching wills of individuals with the same name of as your ancestor. The census records said that your ancestor could read and write. You find the wills of two persons with the same name. One marked his will with an X the other signed his name on the will.  The person using the X most likely couldn’t read or write. Since you are looking for a person who could read and write, the X should raise caution flags that this person may not be the person you are looking for.
  • Place of birth (Col. 19-21). If the person was born in the United States, the enumerator was to enter the state where they were born. If they were born outside the United States, the enumerator would enter the native country. If the person was born within the state they were being enumerated, the census taker might include the county or township.
    • Father and mothers place of birth.  This information is critical to helping you develop scenarios of where to search for family.
    • Narrow search. Use this information to narrow your search for records to geographic area even town. Also very helpful with clues to immigration and/or migration.

1880 schedules
The 1880 census included the population and several other schedules taken usually at the same time. There are resources online and in print that provide more detail on these schedules and how to use them in genealogy research.  I always suggest that you check these schedules. They include:

  •  Manufacture’s Schedule. Provides information on businesses and industries for the year (i.e., June 2, 1879 to June 1, 1880).  Manufactures that were household based were not included. The information collected focused on the products of the industry such as mining, fisheries, mercantile, commercial and trading businesses. The census taker included the name of the company/owner, kind of business, amount invested, quantity and value of materials, labor, machinery and products. These schedules are valuable because they many document businessmen and merchants who do not appear in the land records.
  • Mortality Schedule. Provides information about persons who died during the twelve months prior to the census (i.e., June 2, 1879 to June 1, 1880). It collected the following information: name, age, sex, color, and place of birth, marital status, profession, occupation/trade, month of death, disease or cause of death, number of days ill and remarks. In 1870 a place for parents’ birthplaces was added. In 1880, the place where a disease was contracted, how long the deceased person was a citizen or resident and included fractions (e.g. 1/12) if less than a year.  Use the information to research other records such as obituaries, mortuary records, cemeteries, and probate records.  1880 is  last census to include the Mortality Schedule.
  • Agricultural Schedule. Provides data on farms and the names of the farmers for the year (i.e., June 2, 1879 to June 1, 1880). Farm information focused on agricultural production.  In 1870 and 1880 farms of less than three acres or which produced less than $500 worth of products were not included. Use the information to
    • Fill in gaps with land and tax records are missing
    • Distinguish between individuals with the same surnames
    • Document land ownership and search related records such as deeds, mortgages, tax rolls and probate inventories.
    • Trace migration and economic growth.
  • Social Statistics Schedule. Includes information about the following topics:  valuation of real estate; annual taxes; colleges, academies, and schools; seasons and crops; libraries; newspapers and periodicals; religion; pauperism; crime; and wages. These schedules are valuable because they many document businessmen and merchants who  do  not appear in the land records.  For example,
    • Cemeteries.  You will have a listing of the cemeteries (i.e., names, addresses, descriptions, procedures for interment) with the city boundaries along with maps pin pointing their locations. You will also find lists of cemeteries that are no longer open and why.
    • Trade societies, lodges and clubs. You find their names, addresses, and officers.
    • Churches. You will find a brief history, overview of doctrine and policies and statistical list of members.
  • Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes Schedule.   Includes different forms to enumerate the following classes of individuals: insane, idiots, deaf-mutes, blind, paupers and indigent persons, homeless children, and prisoners.  You will learn the individuals name, race, gender, age, and residence. If the person had a mental or physical illness, questions related to the medical history were asked.  Questions for homeless children focused on their parents. Questions about imprisonment were asked for prisoners.
  • Indian Population Schedule. This is not the American Indian Census rolls.  For this schedule the enumerators recorded the Indians that were living on the reservation and non-reservation on the Indian Population schedule. The census for has two sections.  The top half asks questions just like the standard population schedule.  The bottom half is specific to the Indians, such as, other names they are known, tribe, father and mother, degree of white blood, whether living in polygamy, whether they are being taxed, and type of dwelling they live in.
  • 1885 Special Census. In 1885 with partial assistance of the U.S. Federal government, Colorado, Florida, Nebraska and the territories of Dakota (i.e., North and South Dakota) and New Mexico chose to conduct a census that three schedules:
    • Population. Includes number of dwelling and families, name, color, sex, age, relationship to head of household, marital status, occupation, place of birth, parents birth place, literacy, and sickness/disability.
    • Agriculture. Includes name of owner, tenure, acreage, farm value, estimated value of farm products, number and kind of livestock, and amount and type of produce.
    • Products of Industry. Provides information on businesses and industries. Includes name of business or products, capital invested, number of employees, wages and hours, number of months in operation, value of materials used, value of products, and amount and type of power used.
    • Mortality. Includes, name, age, sex, color, material status, place of birth, parents’ place of birth, occupation, cause of death for every person who died between June 1, 1884 and May 31, 1885.
  • Veterans Schedule. In 1890 there was a  special  schedule created for Union Civil War veterans which also includes many Confederate veterans.  You will find the following type of information: name, rank, company, regiment or vessel, dates of enlistment and discharge, length of service, residence, disability, and remarks.  Muchofthe1890censuswas destroyed by fire. Nearly all of the records for the states of Alabama through Kansas and western half of Kentucky were lost. . Of those states that have been lost there are few schedules that exist and they are:
    • California – Alcatraz
    • Connecticut – Fort Trumbull
    • Connecticut – Hartford County Hospital
    • Connecticut – U.S. Naval Station
    • Delaware – Delaware State Hospital for the Insane
    • District of Columbia – Lincoln Post #3
    • Florida – Fort Barrancas
    • Florida – St. Francis Barracks
    • Idaho – Boise Barracks
    • Idaho – Fort Sherman
    • Illinois – Cook County
    • Illinois – Henderson County
    • Indiana – Warrick County
    • Indiana – White County
    • Kansas – Barton Count

The schedules for the remaining half of Kentucky and the states of Louisiana to Wyoming are available. Actual remaining schedules are from: The remaining half of Kentucky and the states of Louisiana to Wyoming are available.  Actual states include: Half of Kentucky, and Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, US ships and navy yards, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

1880 military
Even though there is no information in the 1870 census that identifying veterans of war, there are still men living who served in one or more military wars and conflicts.  The records available for these men vary but can yield important clues and knowledge about the veteran and his family.

  • Pension applications. Search for pension applications and records of pension payments for veterans, their widows, and other heirs. The pension applications usually provide the most information and can include supporting documents such as marriage, birth, and dead records/certificates, pages from family Bibles, family letters, dispositions of witnesses, affidavits, discharge papers and other supporting documents. Even if you ancestor did not receive a pension, look to see if his pension request was denied.
  • Bounty lands. Bounty land applications also are related wartime service. The federal government provided bounty land for those who served in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and Indian wars between 1775 and 1855. Bounty lands were offered as incentive to serve and as a reward for service. Bounty land was claimed by veterans or their heirs.

Search for these military records:

Early Indian Wars 1815-1858. Look for military records of men serving in the Early Indian Wars who are age of 45+ in the 1880 census. These men would have been born prior to 1835. See the article:

Mexican War 1846-1848. Look for military records of men serving in the Mexican Wars who are ages of 47+ in the 1880 census.  These men would have been born prior to 1832. See the article:

Civil War 1861-1865. Civil War 1861-1865. Look for military records of men who would be serving in the U.S. Civil War who are between the ages of 30 and 80 in the 1880 census.  These men would have been born in 1850 and earlier.  Keep in mind that many young men lied about their age and served with their father, brother (s), or other family members.  If your ancestor lived in the Union or Confederate states that they served in their army.  If your ancestor lived in the Union or Confederate states that they served in their army.  Many men who were in the Union served in the Confederacy. And there are many men from the South that served in the Union Army. Make sure that you search for all male members of the family (i.e., father, sons, brothers, uncles, and nephews.)  The Civil War enlistment card will give you clues of your ancestor’s location and place of residence. See the articles:

Researching military headstones. Military headstones have evolved through time. See the following articles for details:

1880 defning
A census is a government-sponsored enumeration of the population in a particular area and contains a variety of information — names, heads of household (or all household members), ages, citizenship status, ethnic background, and so on. Here are some different types of census records you are likely to come across in your research.

U.S. federal census is also called a population schedule. Federal census records provide the building blocks of your research, allowing you to both confirm information and to learn more. Compiled in the United States for every decade since 1790, census population schedules are comprehensive, detailed records of the federal government’s decennial survey of American households. Information from the schedules is used by the federal government for demographic analysis.

The schedules themselves, of interest primarily to genealogists, contain the personal information of the survey respondents. To protect the privacy of the people whose names appear in each schedule, census records are restricted for 72 years after the census is taken and are not available to researchers during that time.

1880 using
I’ve effectively used the 1880 census to conduct find and use the following information:

  • Identify members of household by name
  • Identify relationships—surnames of married daughter, mother-in-law, cousins, other relatives
  • Indicate that wife may not be mother of kids
  • Identify ages of individuals by name
  • Begin to establish family relationships (e.g., spouse, children, siblings, parents)
  • Identify who is missing (perhaps a Civil War casualty)
  • Identify people of color: White (W), Indian (I) American Indian, Black (B), Chinese (C) included all east Asians, Mulatto (M)
  • Begin to identify possible remarriages and step relationships
  • Identify birthplace of parents-immigrant information
  • Supplement birth/marriage info. Due to relationship info.
  • Locate and identify birthplaces
  • Identify occupations
  • Locate and identify real estate
  • Find information in various schedules that include: Population, agriculture, industry and mortality
  • Locate and identify family who are neighbors
  • Identify spelling variations
  • Locate and identify family in other census substitute records (e.g., probate inventories, tax lists)
  • Locate and identify children not yet known
  • Locate and identify possible parents
  • Locate and identify possible children not listed in later censuses
  • Differentiate between families of the same name
  • Locate and identify possible neighbors who might be family
  • Give clues to genetic symptoms or diseases

See the article: Build a family profile

1880 questions 2
The following are the questions found in the 1880 United States Census.

LOCATION
Col. 1: Name of Street House Number
Col. 2: Dwelling Number

HOUSEHOLD DATA
Col. 3: Family Number

NAME
Col. 4: Names

PERSONAL DESCRIPTION
Col. 5: Color

  • White (W)
  • Black (B)
  • Mulatto (M)
  • Chinese (C)
  • Indian (I)

Col. 6: Sex
Col. 7: Age prior to June 1st
Col. 8: Month of birth if born in census year

RELATION
Col. 9: Relationship to head of house

ADDITIONAL PERSONAL DESCRIPTION
Col. 10: Single
Col. 11: Married
Col. 12: Widowed (W), Divorced (D)
Col. 13: Married in census year

OCCUPATION
Col. 14: Profession, Occupation, or Trade
Col. 15: No of months unemployed

HEALTH
Col. 16: Health Information Item No.

  • 15-Sick or temporarily disabled
  • 16-Blind
  • 17-Deaf & dumb
  • 18-Idiotic
  • 19-Insane
  • 20-Maimed or crippled

EDUCATION
Col. 17: Attended School
Col. 18: Cannot read/Cannot write

PLACE OF BIRTH
Col. 19: Place of birth
Col. 20: Place of birth of father
Col. 21: Place of birth of motherThis article how-to tutorial to researching the 1880 U.S. Federal census records.