The most economical cuts of BEEF for roasting are the shoulder, the face of the rump, and the chuck ribs; they are all of good flavor and fairly tender. When ordering a shoulder ROAST, have an inch slice cut off to broil. The chuck ROAST should be ordered boned and rolled, and the bones sent with it. Wipe BEEF with cheesecloth, place skin side down on a rack in a roasting pan suitable for the size of the ROAST; dust with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and cook in a hot oven, basting every ten minutes. When half roasted, turn over, dredge with flour, and finish cooking. For a medium-cooked ROAST allow seventeen minutes for each pound of meat. The oven should be very hot for the first fifteen minutes, after which the heat should be reduced.
Better Meals for Less Money, by Mary Green (Year 1909)